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Foreword the Editor

 On behalf of the Palestine Technical University – Kadoorie, I am pleased to present a new edition of Palestine Technical University Research Journal, which counties by the joint efforts of scientific researchers, academics and collaborators.

I am greatly appreciative to all the authors for their outstanding works and remarkable contributions. Every issue offers useful reports, articles and scientific publications in multiple fields and disciplines. We encourage researchers and professionals to submit manuscripts and share their finding with the world through our journal. We are looking forward to receive extraordinary manuscripts and to promote the development in the cutting-edge of peer reviewed publishing. We are determined to enhance effective dissemination and exploitation of knowledge, we assure authors that, all published papers are safely stored and protected by copyright in our institutional repository, unless otherwise indicated.

Once again, I would like to congratulate the team that contributed to the production of edition and I hope it will be of great benefit to all researchers and encourage others to contribute with more creative researches.


Dr. Rana Samara

PTURJ editor-in-chief,

Palestine technical University